ABC Dictionary Abbreviations

The following list includes all the dictionary abbreviations, not only Chinese Parts of Speech & English Parts of Speech:

  • ab.   abbreviation   suōxiě 缩写
  • acct.   accounting   kuàijì 会计
  • adj.   adjective   xíngróngcí 形容词
  • adv.   adverb   fùcí 副词
  • agr.   agriculture   nóngyè 农业
  • a.m.   aspect marker   tǐ biāojì 体标记
  • archeo.   archeology   kạ̌ogǔxué 考古学
  • archi.   architecture   jiànzhùxué 建筑学
  • art.   article   guàncí 冠词
  • astr.   astronomy   tiānwénxué 天文学
  • a.t.   abstruse term   shēn’àocí 深奥词
  • attr.   attributive   dìngyǔ 定语
  • aux.   auxiliary verb   zhùdòngcí 助动词
  • b.f.   bound form   niánzhuó císù 粘着词素
  • bio.   biology   shēngwùxué 生物学
  • bot.   botany   zhíwùxué 植物学
  • budd.   Buddhism, Buddhist   Fójiào 佛教
  • ca.   circa; about; approximately   dàyuē 大约
  • ccp   Chinese Communist Party   Zhōngguó Gòngchạ̌ndǎng 中国共产党
  • cent.   century   shìjì 世纪
  • cf.   confer   cháyuè 查閱
  • ch.   China, Chinese   Zhōngguó 中国
  • ch. med.   Chinese medicine   Zhōngyī 中医
  • char.   character   zì 字
  • chem.   chemistry   huàxué 化学
  • cmp.   complement   bụ̌yǔ 补语
  • coll.   colloquial   kọ̌uyǔ 口语
  • com.   commerce   shāngyè 商业
  • comp.   computer   jìsuànjī 计算机
  • compar.   comparative   bǐjiàojí 比较级
  • conj.   conjunction   liáncí 连词
  • cons.   construction   jùxíng 句型
  • court.   courteous   jìngcí 敬辞
  • cov.   coverb   jiècí 介词
  • cp.   compare   bǐjiào 比較
  • cult. rev.   Cultural Revolution   Wén-Gé 文革
  • d.   died   shìshì 逝世
  • dao.   Daoism, Daoist   Dàojiào 道教
  • dd.   etc.   dẹ̌ngděng 等等
  • derog.   derogatory   biǎnyìcí 贬义词
  • econ.   economics   jīngjì 经济
  • edu.   education   jiàoyù 教育
  • e.g.   for example (exempli gratia)   lìrú 例如
  • elec.   electrical engineering   diàngōng 电工
  • esp.   especially   tèzhǐ 特指
  • etc.   and so on (et cetera)   dẹ̌ngděng 等等
  • f.e.   fixed expression   gùdìng cízǔ 固定词组
  • fig.   figurative(ly)   yǐnyù 隐喻
  • forest.   forestry   sēnlín 森林
  • form.   formal   zhèngshì yòngyǔ 正式用语
  • geog.   geography   dìlǐ 地理
  • geol.   geology   dìzhì 地质
  • hist.   history   lìshǐ 历史
  • humb.   humble   qiāncí 谦词
  • id.   idiomatic saying   xíyǔ 习语
  • i.e.   that is (id est)   nà jiùshì shuō 那就是說
  • inf.   infix   zhōngzhuì 中缀
  • inform.   informal   fēizhèngshìyǔ 非正式语
  • intj.   interjection   gǎntàn 感叹
  • jp.   Japan, Japanese   Rìběn 日本
  • kmt   Kuomintang/Guomindang   Guómíndǎng 国民党
  • lg.   language, linguistics   yǔyán(xué) 语言(学)
  • lit.   literal(ly)   zìmiàn yì 字面义
  • liv.   livestock husbandry   xùmù 畜牧
  • loan   loan word   wàiláicí 外来词
  • log.   logic   luóji 逻辑
  • m.   measure   liàngcí 量词
  • mach.   machinery   jīxiè 机械
  • math.   mathematics   shùxué 数学
  • med.   medicine   yīxué 医学
  • met.   meteorology   qìxiàng 气象
  • metal.   metallurgy   yějīn 冶金
  • mil.   military   jūnshì 军事
  • min.   mining   kuàngyè 矿业
  • m.p.   modal particle   yǔqìcí 语气词
  • mus.   music   yīnyuè 音乐
  • n.   noun   míngcí 名词
  • n.c.   countable noun   kẹ̌shǔ míngcí 可数名词
  • n.p.   plural noun   fùshù míngcí 复数名词
  • n.sing.   singular noun   dānshù míngcí 单数名词
  • n.u.   uncountable noun   bùkẹ̌shǔ míngcí 不可数名词
  • num.   number   shùcí 数词
  • on.   onomatopoeia   xiàngshēngcí 象声词
  • orig.   original(ly)   yuányì 原意
  • paleo.   paleontology   gǔshēngwùxué 古生物学
  • phil.   philosophy   zhéxué 哲学
  • photo.   photography   shèyǐng 摄影
  • phy.   physics   wùlǐ 物理
  • phys.   physiology   shēnglǐxué 生理学
  • pl.   plural   fùshù 复数
  • pol.   politics   zhèngzhì 政治
  • p.p.   past participle   guòqù fēncí 过去分词
  • pr.   pronoun   dàicí 代词
  • prc   People’s Republic of China   Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó 中华人民共和国
  • pref.   prefix   qiánzhuì 前缀
  • pres.p.   present participle   xiànzài fēncí 现在分词
  • print.   printing   yìnshuā 印刷
  • prov.   province   shěng 省
  • psy.   psychology   xīnlǐxué 心理学
  • p.t.   past tense   quòqùshí 过去时
  • p.w.   place word   chùsuǒcí 处所词
  • rel.   religion   zōngjiào 宗教
  • r.f.   reduplicated form   chóngdiécí 重叠词
  • r.v.   resultative verb   jiéguǒ bụ̌yǔ 结果补语
  • sb.   somebody   mǒurén 某人
  • sig.   signifying, signalizing   biǎoshì 表示
  • soc.   sociology   shèhuìxué 社会学
  • s.p.   subordinating particle   cóngshǔcí 从属词
  • sth.   something   mǒushì 某事
  • suf.   suffix   hòuzhuì 后缀
  • super.   superlative degree   zuìgāojí 最高级
  • sur.   surveying   cèhuì 测绘
  • s.v.   stative verb   jìngtài dòngcí 静态动词
  • thea.   theater   xìjù 戏剧
  • topo.   topolect, non-Mandarin   fāngyán 方言
  • trad.   traditional   chuántǒng 传统
  • traf.   traffic, communication   jiāotōng 交通
  • tw   Taiwan   Táiwān 台湾
  • txtl.   textile   fǎngzhī 纺织
  • usu.   usually   tōngcháng 通常
  • v.   verb   dòngcí 动词
  • v.i.   intransitive verb   bùjíwù dòngcí 不及物动词
  • v.m.   verbal measure word   dòngliàngcí 动量词
  • v.o.   verb-object   dòng-bīn líhécí 动宾离合词
  • v.p.   verb phrase   dòngcí cízǔ 动词词组
  • v.t.   transitive verb   jíwù dòngcí 及物动词
  • vs.   versus   duìyìng 对应
  • vulg.   vulgar   súyǔ 俗语
  • wr.   writing, wenyan   wényán, shūmiàn 文言, 书面
  • zoo.   zoology   dòngwùxué 动物学

 

Chinese Parts of Speech

  • a.m.=Aspect Marker=Tǐbiāojì=体标记
    • Aspect means the stage of completion of an action. Chinese usually uses verbal suffixes as a means of indicating this information. Examples of Chinese aspect include the (i) durative (action in progress, much like ‘-ing’ in English), e.g., zhe 着 in kànzhe 看着 ‘is watching’; (ii) perfective (completed action), e.g., le 了 in kànle wǔ ge diànyǐng 看了五个电影, ‘saw five movies’; and (iii) experiential (much like the ‘ever’ in the question ‘Have you ever … ∼?’), e.g., guo 过 in jiànguo tā 见过他 ‘have met him before’. Note that aspect is not the same thing as tense. Tense refers to when the action takes place relative to when the utterance is actually spoken, and so at most any language can have only three tenses: past, present and future. Aspect, on the other hand, can occur in any tense, so that even completed action can be spoken of in the (a) past, e.g., Tā zuótiān dàole Běijīng 他昨天到了北京 ‘He arrived in Beijing yesterday’; (b) present, e.g., Tā xiànzài dàole Běijīng 他现在到了北京 ‘He has now arrived in Beijing’; or (c) future, e.g., Tā míngtiān zhèige shíhou yǐjing dàole Běijīng 他明天这个时候已经到了北京 ‘He will already have arrived in Beijing by this time tomorrow’. (See also m.p. for usage of le 了 as a sentence-final particle.)
  • a.t.=Abstruse Term=Shēn’àocí=深奥词
    • A term that occurs so infrequently or has such unclear syntactic behavior that its part of speech cannot be determined with assurance, if at all. E.g., géqiǎn 格浅.
  • ab.=Abbreviation=Suōxiěcí=缩写词
    • Multi-syllable nominal phrase usually shortened to two or three syllables. E.g., Běi Dà 北大 for Běijīng Dàxué 北京大学.
  • adv.=Adverb=Fùcí=副词
    • Adverbs modify the action of the verb. Verbal modification includes (i) intensification, e.g., hěn 很 in hěn hǎo 很好 ‘is very good’; (ii) negation, e.g., bù 不 in bù shuō 不说 ‘doesn’t speak’; (iii) quantification, e.g., dōu 都 in dōu shuō 都说 ‘all say’; (iv) repetition, e.g., zài 再 in zài shuō 再说 ‘say it again’; etc. Most stative verbs (s.v.) can also function as adverbs (sometimes with reduplication), e.g., màn 慢 in mànmàn chī 慢慢吃 ‘Take your time (eating)’ and rènzhēn 认真 in rènzhēn de xiě 认真地写 ‘write carefully’. However, this is only a secondary function of a stative verb. Therefore stative verbs are not additionally labeled as adverbs in this dictionary.
  • attr.=Attributive=Dìngyǔ=定语
    • An attributive is any word, phrase or sentence that is found directly in front of a noun or noun phrase and functions to modify that noun. Just about any word, phrase or sentence in Chinese can easily function as an attributive. Because of this, the label attr. is limited in this dictionary only to those entries that have no possible function other than that of attributive. Examples include gōnggòng 公共 in gōnggòng qìchē 公共汽车 ‘(public) bus’, qián 前 in qiánbàn 前半 ‘first half’, Zhōng-Měi 中美 in Zhōng-Měi guānxi 中美关系 ‘Sino-American relations’, etc.
  • aux.=Auxiliary Verb=Zhùdòngcí=助动词
    • This is what schoolteachers often call a “helping verb.” Auxiliary verbs in Chinese always precede the main verb, e.g., néng 能 in néng shuō Yīngwén 能说英文 ‘able to speak English’. When an auxiliary verb co-occurs with a coverb (cov.), then the auxiliary verb always precedes the coverb, e.g., néng gēn wàiguórén shuō Yīngwén 能跟外国人说英文 ‘able to speak English with foreigners’. In any sentence containing an auxiliary verb, negation is always placed directly in front of the auxiliary verb, e.g., bùnéng gēn wàiguórén shuō Yīngwén 不能跟外国人说英文 ‘unable to speak English with foreigners’.
  • b.f.=Bound Form=Niánzhuó Císù=粘着词素
    • Morphemes which do not function as free words in a sentence and cannot be handled using one of the other bound category labels, such as prefix, suffix, measure word, or particle. A given character may represent a free word in one or more of its meanings but a bound morpheme in other meanings. E.g., qiǎng 抢 is a bound form meaning ‘rush’ in qiǎngshōu 抢收 ‘rush a harvest’ but a free form as a verb meaning ‘pillage’. Compare the entry label char., used for characters that are not morphemes.
  • char.=Character=Zì=字
    • There are many characters that have no meaning of their own (at least in modern Chinese) but simply represent a syllabic sound. E.g., 葡 and 萄 in 葡萄 pútao ‘grapes’. For these entries we provide the entry label char., and in place of a definition we simply note words in which the character occurs. Compare bound forms (b.f.), which are meaningful morphemes although they may not be free words. Note: in the printed editions of the ABC Dictionary, the char. entry label is not used; instead, it is implied by the absence of an entry label.
  • cmp.=Complement=Bǔyǔ=补语
    • A complement is a post-verbal syllable, word, phrase or sentence that indicates the end result of the action carried out by the main verb. This end result may be (i) a state, e.g., wán 完 in chīwán 吃完 ‘finish eating’, zhù 住 in zhuāzhù 抓住 ‘grasp tightly’; (ii) physical displacement, e.g., guòlai 过来 in ná guòlai 拿过来 ‘bring over’, shàngqu 上去 in ná shàngqu 拿上去 ‘take up’; (iii) psychological displacement, e.g., xiàlai 下来 in mǎi xiàlai 买下来 ‘buy sth. (and thus bring it “down” into one’s own realm)’, etc. For all types of complement it is further possible to indicate the potential for that complement to be realized as a result of carrying out the main action. That potential or lack of potential is indicated by inserting a -de- 得 (indicating positive potential) or a -bu- 不 (indicating no potential whatsoever) directly between the main verb and its complement, e.g., chīdewán 吃得完 ‘able to finish sth. if one tries’, chībuwán 吃不完 ‘unable to finish sth. no matter how hard one tries’. See also Resultative Verb construction (r.v.).
  • conj.=Conjunction=Liáncí=连词
    • A conjunction is a word that joins phrases or sentences together to form a larger sentence or chunk of thought. Some examples include érqiě 而且 ‘furthermore’, suīrán 虽然 ‘although’, suǒyǐ 所以 ‘therefore’, jiù 就 ‘then’ and yàoburán 要不然 ‘otherwise’.
  • cons.=Construction=Jùxíng=句型
    • A fixed sentence pattern. E.g., yǔqí V1 bùrú V2 与其V1不如V2 ‘rather than V1 it is better to V2’ (where V1 and V2 represent any two verbs); cóng A qǐ 从A起 ‘starting/beginning from A’ (where A represents any word).
  • cov.=Coverb=Jiècí=介词
    • Entries of this category frequently translate into English as prepositions. They directly precede nouns, which in turn are followed immediately by the main verb/action, e.g., gēn 跟 in gēn wàiguórén shuō Yīngwén 跟外国人说英文 ‘speak English with foreigners’, gěi 给 in gěi péngyou mǎi lǐwù 给朋友买礼物 ‘buy a present for a friend’.
  • f.e.=Fixed Expression=Gùdìng Cízǔ=固定词组
    • Set expressions that allow for little if any freedom to substitute different words. They include (i) utterances whose meanings are exactly equivalent to the meaning of their parts, e.g., hǎojiǔbujiàn 好久不见 ‘haven’t seen (you) for a long time’, báirìzuòmèng 白日做梦 ‘daydream’, zhàn de gāo, kàn de yuǎn 站得高,看得远 ‘be far-sighted’; (ii) parallel nominal, verbal, or phrasal expressions, e.g., méiwánméiliǎo 没完没了 ‘endless’, pīhóngguàlǜ 披红挂绿 ‘drape honorific red silk band over sb.’s shoulders’; (iii) expressions whose meanings, although strictly speaking metaphorical, can nevertheless still be fairly easily understood when encountered in context, e.g., zǒumǎkànhuā 走马看花 ‘know only from cursory observation’. Very frequently example sentences are necessary for students to know how to use entries from this category actively.
  • id.=Idiom=Xíyǔ=习语
    • A subset of fixed expressions whose meanings cannot be understood from context, but rather depend upon the listener/reader’s specialized cultural, literary and/or historical knowledge in order to be understood. Most, if not all, idioms require example sentences in order for students to know how to use them actively, e.g., jiānghérìxià 江河日下 ‘go from bad to worse’; mùyǐchéngzhōu 木已成舟 ‘what’s done can’t be undone’; wángyángbǔláo 亡羊补牢 ‘better late than never’.
  • inf.=Infix=Zhōngzhuì=中缀
    • The two bound markers of the potential in resultative verb (see r.v.) and directional verb constructions, i.e., ³de 得, bu 不, e.g., chīdewán 吃得完 ‘able to finish sth. if one tries’, ná bu xiàlai 拿不下来 ‘unable to get sth. down no matter how hard one tries’.
  • intj.=Interjection=Gǎntàncí=感叹词
    • An unbound exclamation. E.g., ²ài 唉 expressing sentiment/sympathy/disappointment; āiyō 哎哟 expressing surprise/pain.
  • m.=Nominal Measure Word=Míngliàngcí=名量词
    • In Chinese it is not possible to count the quantity of something simply by using a bare number, followed immediately by a noun. Rather, Chinese nouns all behave like the English nouns ‘paper’, ‘water’ and ‘dynamite’. That is, when we count these three nouns in English, we must include an additional word, such as ‘sheet’, ‘cup’ or ‘stick’ directly after the quantity, and directly in front of the noun. This additional word tells us something about the shape, size, unit of measurement, etc. of the noun in question. Some Chinese examples include zhāng 张 in yī zhāng zhuōzi 一张桌子 ‘one desk’; bǎ 把 in liǎng bǎ yǐzi 两把椅子 ‘two chairs’; and ⁴zhī 支 in sān zhī qiānbǐ 三支铅笔 ‘three pencils’. In recent years ge 个, the nonspecific measure word, has gradually been displacing the other, more specific measure words. In the dictionary, nouns that do not have a specific measure word may be used with ge 个. In actuality, ge 个 is also used with many other nouns as well.
  • m.p.=Modal Particle=Yǔqìcí=语气词
    • These are sentence-final particles that express some kind of attitude, opinion, or feeling of the speaker. A few of the attitudes commonly expressed by modal particles in Mandarin include (i) supposition, e.g., ba 吧 in Nǐ shì Měiguórén ba? 你是美国人吧? ‘You’re an American, right?’; (ii) warning, e.g., a 啊 in Nǐ bié shàng tā de dàng a! 你别上他的当啊! ‘Don’t be fooled by him!’; (iii) exclamation, e.g., lou 喽 in Chīfàn lou! 吃饭喽! ‘Time to eat!’; (iv) new (or currently relevant) situation, e.g., le 了 in Tài guì le. 太贵了。‘It’s too expensive.’
  • n.=Noun=Míngcí=名词
    • We use this label to cover a broad range of nominal expressions, from simple names of persons or things, to extended noun phrases (míngcí cízǔ 名词词组). (More technically: An expression that can be modified by a demonstrative pronoun plus a measure word. E.g., shū 书 in nà běn shū 那本书 ‘that book’.) Chinese nouns, unlike their English counterparts, usually do not inherently contain a sense of location. That is, while one can comfortably say: ‘He is eating by the picnic table’ in English, the same sentence cannot be translated directly into Chinese without modification. This is because the action of eating is taking place at a specific location by the picnic table, yet zhuōzi 桌子 ‘table’ all by itself in Chinese is merely a physical object. It lacks any natural sense of location. Therefore, some sort of locational information, e.g., nèibiānr 那边儿 ‘there’, xiàmian 下面 ‘under’ or lǐ 里 ‘in’, is required after zhuōzi 桌子 in order to locate the action in physical space. See p.w. (Place Word) for the special subtype of Chinese noun that does not require additional locational information when the noun serves as a location. The label n. is used for both nouns and noun phrases; the latter include (i) cases of the form ‘XX de Noun’ or ‘XX zhī Noun’, where modification of a noun takes place using a Subordinating Particle (s.p.), e.g., ài de jiéjīng 爱的结晶 ‘child of a couple in love’, bàijūnzhījiàng 败军之将 ‘general of a defeated army’, as well as (ii) cases where two or more levels of modification exist; ‘XX YY Noun’ and the complex entry itself is neither a proper technical term nor an accepted piece of jargon, e.g., àiguó wèishēng yùndòng 爱国卫生运动 ‘patriotic health campaign’.
  • num.=Number=Shùcí=数词
    • E.g., yī 一 ‘one’, èr 二 ‘two’, sān 三 ‘three’.
  • on.=Onomatopoeia=Xiàngshēngcí=象声词
    • These are terms that imitate or are suggestive of the sounds of the things they represent. Examples include dīdā 滴答 ‘sound of dripping water’ and wūwū 呜呜 ‘sound of hooting’.
  • p.w.=Place Word=Chùsuǒcí=处所词
    • Most Chinese nouns do not convey a sense of location. Therefore, when a Chinese noun is used to indicate the whereabouts of another object or the setting of a particular action, it is normally necessary to place some sort of locational information, e.g., nèibiānr 那边儿 ‘there’, xiàmian 下面 ‘under’, lǐ 里 ‘in’, etc., directly after the reference noun (see discussion of n.). However, there are certain types of nouns in Chinese that actually do inherently contain a salient enough sense of location that the inclusion of additional location information about that noun is largely unnecessary. These special nouns are called place words, and include (i) names of countries, e.g., Zhōngguó 中国 ‘China’, (ii) institutions, e.g., Běijīng Dàxué 北京大学 ‘Beijing University’, (iii) organizations, e.g., Liánhéguó 联合国 ‘United Nations’ and (iv) buildings, e.g., túshūguǎn 图书馆 ‘library’.
  • pr.=Pronoun=Dàicí=代词
    • Includes (i) personal pronouns, e.g., wǒ 我 ‘I, me’; (ii) interrogative pronouns, e.g., shuí 谁 ‘who?’; and (iii) demonstrative pronouns, e.g., zhè 这 ‘this’.
  • pref.=Prefix=Qiánzhuì=前缀
    • Always bound and prefixed to (i) nouns, e.g., lǎo 老 ‘old’ in Lǎo Wáng 老王 ‘old Wang’; ²fēi 非 ‘non’ in fēijīnshǔ 非金属 ‘non-metal’; (ii) numbers, e.g., dì 第 ‘sequence’ in dì-sān 第三 ‘third’; or (iii) verbs, e.g., ²kě 可 ‘can’ in kěxíng 可行 ‘doable’; hǎo 好 ‘good’ in hǎochī 好吃 ‘delicious’; ²nán 难 ‘difficult’ in nánchī 难吃 ‘bad tasting’.
  • r.f.=Reduplicated Form=Chóngdiécí=重叠词
    • Terms containing the reduplication of one or two basic syllables. Examples include (i) XXYY reduplication, e.g., mǎmahūhū 马马虎虎 ‘so-so’, and (ii) XYY reduplication, e.g., lěngbīngbīng 冷冰冰 ‘very cold’.
  • r.v.=Resultative Verb=Jiéguǒ bǔyǔcí=结果补语词
    • Sometimes Chinese focuses not only on the action itself, but also on the end result or goal of that action, e.g., chīwán 吃完 (lit. ‘eat and finish’) and ná guòlai 拿过来 (lit. ‘pick up and bring over’). ‘Finish’ is the end result of eating, and ‘ending up over here’ is the final result of picking sth. up and carrying it somewhere. These verb-complement constructions (see cmp.) are labeled here as resultative verb constructions, even though some people might call ná guòlai 拿过来 by a different name. For both types of constructions it is further possible to indicate the potential for the goal of that action to be realized. That potential or lack of potential is indicated by inserting an infix (see inf.) -de- 得 (indicating positive potential) or -bu- 不 (indicating no potential whatsoever) directly between the main verb and the complement that follows it, e.g., chīdewán 吃得完 ‘able to finish sth. if one tries’, ná bu guòlai 拿不过来 ‘unable to bring sth. on over no matter how hard one tries’.
  • s.p.=Subordinating Particle=Cóngshǔcí=从属词
    • Used to link either (i) a modifying clause with the head noun that follows it, i.e., ¹de 的 and zhī 之, e.g., tāmen kàn de shū 他们看的书 ‘the book they read’; (ii) an adverbial with the verb that follows it, i.e., ²de 地, e.g., gāoxìng de shuō 高兴地说 ‘say happily’; or (iii) a verb and the manner clause that follows it, i.e., ³de 得, e.g., shuō de hěn kuài 说得很快 ‘speak quickly’.
  • s.v.=Stative Verb=Jìngtài Dòngcí=静态动词
    • These entries are frequently translated into English as adjectives, even though they actually behave in Chinese as verbs. That is, the sense of ‘to be’ is already incorporated into these verbs, e.g., Zhèige hěn hǎo 这个很好 ‘This is quite good’. In fact, it is simply ungrammatical to place the verb shì 是, ‘to be’, directly in front of a stative verb. Because stative verbs are actually verbs, they are directly negated by bù 不, e.g., bù hǎo 不好 ‘not good’, and can be further modified by adverbs of degree such as hěn 很 ‘quite’, fēicháng 非常 ‘extremely’ and shífēn 十分 ‘very; utterly’. One common function of stative verbs is that they may serve as adverbs to other actions, e.g., mànmàn 慢慢 in mànmàn chī 慢慢吃 ‘take your time (eating)’ and  rènzhēn de xiě 认真地写 ‘write carefully’.
  • suf.=Suffix=Hòuzhuì=后缀
    • Always bound, most suffixes combine with nouns, e.g., ²huà 化, r 儿, biān 边, lǐ 里, wài 外, zhōng 中, though verbal suffixes, e.g., bùdié 不迭, chūlai 出来, also exist. Aspect markers (a.m.) are one type of verbal suffix, but are treated as an independent category here. Note that whereas monosyllabic position morphemes such as lǐ 里 and wài 外 are suffixes, their bisyllabic semantic equivalents lǐtou 里头, wàibian 外biān, zhōngjiān 中间 etc. are place words (p.w.).
  • v.=Verb=Dòngcí=动词
    • A word indicating an action or existence. E.g., chī 吃 ‘eat’, zài 在 ‘exist; be at’. (More technically: A word that can be modified by the negatives bù 不 ‘not’ and méi 没 ‘have/did not’. E.g., bù qù 不去 ‘do not go’, méi qù 没去 ‘did not go’.) See also Stative Verb (s.v.) and v.o. construction.
  • v.m.=Verbal Measure Word=Dòngliàngcí=动量词
    • These are bound syllables, suffixed to a quantity, that indicate the number of times an action has taken place, e.g., cì 次, tàng 趟: qù yī tàng 去一趟 ‘go once’; ³biàn 遍: zài shuō yī biàn 再说一遍 ‘say it again’.
  • v.o.=Verb-Object Construction=Dòng-Bīn Jiégòu=动宾结构
    • Many English verbs get translated into natural Chinese as a verb plus an object noun, e.g., chīfàn 吃饭 for ‘eat’, shuōhuà 说话 for ‘speak’, etc. It is important for two reasons to know what is merely a verb in Chinese and what is actually a verb-object construction. First, verb-object constructions can never take a second object, i.e., chīfàn 吃饭 can never be followed directly by something else to be eaten. Second, a verb and its object can be separated from one another, thus allowing (i) aspect particles to be placed directly after the verb, e.g., chīle fàn 吃了饭 ‘after finishing eating’; (ii) modification of the object, e.g., chī Zhōngguófàn 吃中国饭 ‘eat Chinese food’; and (iii) quantification of the noun, e.g., chīle sān wǎn fàn 吃了三碗饭 ‘ate three bowls of rice’. See also Stative Verb (s.v.).
  • v.p.=Verb Phrase=Dòngcí Cízǔ=动词词组
    • This includes (i) descriptive predicates that do not behave as stative verbs, e.g., ǎirán 蔼然 ‘amicable; amiable’, as well as (ii) phrases and longer chunks containing a verb that are not fixed expressions, e.g., bǎiláibǎiqù 摆来摆去 ‘sway; waver’, áidào tiānhēi 挨到天黑 ‘bear up until nightfall’.

 

English Parts of Speech

  • ab.=Abbreviation=Suōxiěcí=缩写词
    • Usually shortened form or acronym of nouns. For example: GNP for Gross National Product, ‘Guómín Shēngchǎn Zǒngzhí 国民生产总值’
  • ad. for advertisement, ‘guǎnggào 广告’
  • adj.=Adjective=Xíngróngcí=形容词
    • Adjectives modify nouns. Adjectives have attributive and predicative uses. Attributive adjectives modify nouns following them, e.g., old modifies car in an old car, black modifies hair in black hair. Predicative adjectives, on the other hand, modify subject nouns from the predicative or post-verbal position. For example, old modifies The car in The car is old, and black modifies Her hair in Her hair is black. Most of the adjectives are gradable, showing a contrast between plain, comparative and superlative forms. (See compar. and super.)
  • adv.=Adverb=Fùcí=副词
    • Like adjectives, most of the adverbs are also gradable and thus have plain, comparative and superlative forms. (See compar. and super.) In English, a high proportion of adverbs are derived from adjectives by adding the suffix -ly, e.g., happy—happily, quick—quickly. However, not every word that ends with -ly is an adverb. Some of them are in fact adjectives. Examples include friendly; fatherly; cowardly.
  • art.=Article=Guàncí=冠词
    • There are two articles in English: definite article the, and indefinite article a. If the word following the indefinite article starts with a vowel sound, a is pronounced as [ən], and spelled as an. English articles are used to denote several features of the noun referent: definite/indefinite, specific/non-specific, old/new information.
  • aux.=Auxiliary=Zhùdòngcí=助动词
    • A sub-category of verb that typically marks tense (past), aspect (perfective/progressive), mood (indicative/imperative/subjunctive) and voice (passive). There are two types of auxiliary in English: modal auxiliary and non-modal auxiliary. The modal auxiliary includes can, will, must, may, shall, should, would, could, might. They do not inflect for person (third personal singular -s) and they must be followed by the infinitive form of a verb. For example, can in He can go now. The non-modal auxiliaries are be, do/does/did, have/has/had. Apart from the functions above, the auxiliary also assists the main verb in forming interrogative and negative structures. For example, does in Does he know you? … No, he doesn’t.
  • compar.=Comparative Degree=Bǐjiàojí=比较级
    • When comparing two objects or actions of unequal attributes, the comparative form of the adjective and adverb is used. If an adjective is monosyllabic, the suffix -er is added, e.g., small—smaller, cold—colder. This rule also applies to polysyllabic adjectives which end in ‘y’, such as pretty—prettier, early—earlier. If the adjective is polysyllabic, the word more is used. E.g. more beautiful. There are a small number of adjectives whose comparative form is irregular. These include good—better; bad—worse; many/much—more; little—less; far—farther/further.
    • For adverbs, the word more is used. For example, Xiao Wang runs more quickly than Xiao Li. Exceptions include well—better; badly—worse.
  • conj.=Conjunction=Liáncí=连词
    • A conjunction joins words, phrases or sentences. English conjunctions include and ‘hé 和’, or ‘huòzhě 或者’, but ‘dànshì 但是’, although ‘suīrán 虽然’, so ‘yīncǐ 因此, suọ̌yǐ 所以’.
  • intj.=Interjection=Gǎntàncí=感叹词
    • An exclamation word expressing surprise, sympathy, or disappointment. For example, My! Alas!
  • n.=Noun=Míngcí=名词
    • The word class of noun in English consists of two sub-classes: common nouns (see n.c., n.pl., n.sing., and n.u.) and proper nouns, which are names of people, countries, cities, organizations, brands, mountains, rivers, etc. In this dictionary, the label n. is also used for proper nouns.
  • n.c.=Countable Noun=Kẹ̌shǔ Míngcí=可数名词
    • English nouns have the grammatical property of countability. A countable noun can take cardinal numbers such as one, twenty and quantifiers many, few. There are two sub-classes of countable nouns, often referred to as regular and irregular nouns. A plural suffix -s (or -es) is required for regular countable nouns when the plural meaning is expressed. For example, three desks; many churches; these lamps.
    • Irregular countable nouns, when pluralized, cannot combine with cardinal numbers and often differ from their singular counterpart in both pronounciation and spelling. For example, foot—feet , child—children. Some of the irregular countable nouns have the same form in both singular and plural, e.g., fish, deer, sheep.
  • n.pl.=Plural Noun=Fùshù Míngcí=复数名词
    • As a sub-class of uncountable noun (see n.u.), the plural noun appears only in plural form. For example, clothes, scissors, trousers, sweets. They cannot take numerals directly. Some of the plural nouns (also called ‘mass nouns’) do not even have the suffix -s (or -es), e.g., cattle, police.
  • n.sing.=Singular Noun=Dānshù Míngcí=单数名词
    • This sub-class of uncountable noun (see n.u.) has only the singular form. This sub-class is differentiated from the uncountable nouns because nouns marked as n.sing. in this dictionary are usually accompanied by the article a, which is not permitted for uncountable nouns. For example, a good mood in The boss is in a good mood today. However, this sub-class of nouns cannot take the numeral word one.
  • n.u.=Uncountable Noun=Bùkẹ̌shǔ Míngcí=不可数名词
    • Uncountable nouns (also called ‘noncount nouns’) cannot occur with numerals. Some of the uncountable nouns are money, furniture, news, weather, harm, water. The uncountable noun is singular for the purpose of subject-verb agreement. Thus, the verb look in the following sentence is inflected for 3rd person singular -s because the subject furniture is an unaccountable noun, hence, singular: The furniture looks old. It is important to note that the grammatical property of countability is a function of meaning and use. The noun glass is uncountable when it means ‘bōli 玻璃’, but countable when it means ‘bēizi 杯子’. Similarly, when used to refer to a substance, some nouns, e.g., beer are uncountable. However, when referring to portions or types of beer, it is countable, e.g., I’d like two beers. The word-final ‘s’ in some of the nouns in this sub-class, e.g., news, physics is not a plural suffix, and these words remain singular in form and use. (See also n.pl., n.sing.)
  • num.=Number=Shùcí=数词
    • E.g., one ‘yī 一’, twenty ‘èrshí 二十’, million ‘bǎiwàn 百万’.
  • on.=Onomatopoeia=Xiàngshēngcí=象声词
    • These are words that imitate or are suggestive of the things they represent. Examples: quack ‘yāzi de jiàoshēng 鸭子的叫声,’ meow ‘miāo 喵 (māo de jiàoshēng 猫的叫声)’.
  • p.p.=Past Participle=Guòqù Fēncí=过去分词
    • A verb form mainly used in the perfective aspect (have+Vp.p.): I have seen that movie. It is also used in the passive voice (be+Vp.p.): Xiao Wang was killed by a car. Regular verbs typically take the suffix -ed to form the past participle, whereas irregular verbs vary in form, e.g., hit—hit, cut—cut, see—seen, bring—brought. A list of irregular verbs and their past participles is in Appendix II.
  • p.t.=Past Tense=Guòqùshí=过去时
    • English verbs are marked for tense, that is, the grammatical form indicating time reference. The past tense marker for regular verbs is -ed (pronounced as [t], [d], or [ɪd]). For irregular verbs, the past tense form varies, ranging from internal sound change, e.g., run—ran, build—built, to a completely new word, e.g., think—thought, do—did, or to no change at all, e.g., cut—cut, hit—hit. In the present dictionary, the past tense form of the irregular verb is provided in the entry of the verb as well as listed as a separate entry. A list of irregular verbs and their past tense forms can be found in Appendix II.
  • pr.=Pronoun=Dàicí=代词
    • This word class includes (i) personal pronoun, (ii) interrogative pronoun, and (iii) demonstrative pronoun. Examples:
    • (i)
      • I ‘wǒ 我’ (zhǔgé 主格)
      • me ‘wǒ 我’ (bīngé 宾格)
      • my ‘wǒ de 我的’ (xíngróngcí suọ̌yǒugé 形容词所有格)
      • mine ‘wǒ de 我的’ (míngcíxìng suọ̌yǒugé 名词性所有格)
      • myself ‘wǒzìjǐ 我自己’ (fǎnshēn dàicí 反身代词)
    • (ii)
      • who ‘shuí 谁’
      • where ‘nǎr 哪儿’
      • what ‘shénme 什么’
    • (iii)
      • this ‘zhè 这’
      • that ‘nà 那’
      • these ‘zhèxiē 这些’
      • those ‘nàxiē 那些’
  • pref.=Prefix=Qiánzhuì=前缀
    • A bound morpheme attached to the beginning of a word. Examples of prefixes are anti-, re-, un-, non-, uni-. English prefixes are all derivational (see suf. for explanation). A list of prefixes is included in Appendix I.
  • prep.=Preposition=Jiècí=介词
    • A class of words used with nouns or pronouns to show relations in space or time. Some of the prepositions include in, on, of, for, from, into, with, at, against, between.
  • pres.p.=Present Participle=Xiànzài Fēncí=现在分词
    • The present participle refers to the verb form containing the suffix -ing, e.g., eating, listening. The present participle is mainly used in the progressive aspect (be+Vpres.p.) to indicate actions in progress. For example: The children are singing and dancing.
  • suf.=Suffix=Hòuzhuì=后缀
    • A bound morpheme attached to the end of a word. English suffixes are large in number and many of them are extremely productive in that they can be added to a large number of words, including newly coined words. The English suffix falls into two categories: derivational and inflectional. The derivational suffix is used to form new words. Examples of the derivational suffix include -less, -ly, -able, -tion, -er, etc. The inflectional suffix, on the other hand, does not form new words but carries out grammatical functions such as plural -s, past tense -ed, progressive aspect -ing, 3rd person singular -s, comparative -er, and superlative -est, etc. A list of suffixes is included in Appendix I.
  • super.=Superlative Degree=Zuìgāojí=最高级
    • When comparing more than two objects or actions of unequal attributes, the superlative form of the adjective and adverb is used. The basic rule is the same as the comparative structure (see compar.). Monosyllabic adjectives take the suffix -est, e.g., small—smallest, cold—coldest. This rule also applies to polysyllabic adjectives which end in ‘y’, as in pretty—prettiest, early—earliest. Polysyllabic adjectives, on the other hand, are preceded by most, e.g., beautiful—most beautiful. The superlative form of the adverb is also formed by inserting most in front of it, e.g., firmly—most firmly. There is a small number of adjectives and adverbs whose superlative forms vary. These include good/well—best; bad/badly—worst; little—least; far—farthest.
  • v.=Verb=Dòngcí=动词
    • A verb indicates an action, a process, or a state. In this dictionary, the label v. is used to indicate that the verb is both transitive and intransitive. See v.i. and v.t. for detailed explanation of the grammatical property of transitivity.
  • v.i.=Intransitive Verb=Bùjíwù Dòngcí=不及物动词
    • An intransitive verb cannot take an object. Examples of such verbs are smile, hesitate, rain. Many verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively, depending on the meaning and use. For example, when run means pǎo 跑, it is an intransitive verb, but when it means jīngyíng 经营, guạ̌nlǐ 管理, it is a transitive verb and thus requires an object.
  • v.t.=Transitive Verb=Jíwù Dòngcí=及物动词
    • A transitive verb can and must take an object. For example, kill, like, use, avoid. Some transitive verbs such as give, buy take two objects, one direct object and one indirect object. In Mary gave her mother a book, her mother is the indirect object and a book is the direct object.

2 Responses to “ABC Dictionary Abbreviations”

  1. hydrandt says:

    Why is this not included in the application offline help? Would be really helpful and much easier to find the explanations in the same app…

    • embermitre says:

      The latest version of Hanping Pro (v3.5.0) supports clickable abbreviations in ABC dictionary definitions. For example, if you click V., you will then see this screen:

      Details screen of V. (verb) abbreviation

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